Gerard Salton

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Gerard “Gerry” SaltonGerry.jpg
Datum a
místo narození
8. 3. 1927
Norimberk, Bavorsko (Německo)
Datum a
místo úmrtí
28. 8. 1995
Cornell, New York (USA)
Příčina úmrtí rakovina plic
Rodinný stav ženatý s Mary Birnbaum, dcera Mariann, syn Peter
Bydliště Ithaca, New York (USA)
Občanství německé, později americké
Vzdělání Brooklyn College, Harvard University
Pracoviště Cornell University
Ocenění ocenění za publikace Guggenheim Fellowship, ASIS Award for Best Information Science Paper, Best Information Science Book, ACM/SIGIR Award for Outstanding Contributions to Information Retrieval,The Alexander von Humboldt Senior Science Award, ASIS Award of Merit
Známý pro vytvoření rešeršního systému SMART


Gerard Salton (8. 3. 1927, Norimberk, Bavorsko, Německo – 28. 8. 1995, Cornell, New York, USA) byl vedoucí postavou v oboru informačního vyhledávání, informačním vědcem, učitelem, autorem řady publikací a ovlivnil vznik vector space modelu.


Život

Gerard Salton se narodil jako Gerhard Anton Sahlmann v Norimberku. Jeho rodina musela kvůli 2. světové válce odejít z Německa. V roce 1947 přijel do Ameriky a roku 1952 získal americké občanství. Studoval na Brooklyn College, roku 1950 získal titul bakalář a o dva roky později titul magistr. Ve studiu pokračoval na Harvardu, kde v roce 1958 získal titul Ph.D. z aplikované matematiky. Byl posledním doktorandským studentem Howarda Aikena. Na Harvardu zůstal jako vyučující, než se roku 1965 přestěhoval do Ithaky. Spoluzaložil Department of Computer Science na Cornellově univerzitě, kde působil do konce svého života.[1]

Dílo

Gerard Salton a jeho kolegové z Harvardu a Cornellu vyvinuli v 60. letech automatizovaný rešeršní systém SMART (System for the Mechanical Analysis and Retrieval of Text), který je základem mnoha současných fulltextových vyhledávacích systémů. Systém SMART se na rozdíl od jiných automatizovaných vyhledávacích systémů neopírá o manuální přiřazení klíčových slov nebo indexových výrazů k identifikaci dokumentů, ani primárně nepoužívá frekvenci výskytu určitých slov nebo frází nacházejících se v textech dokumentů. Namísto toho využívá jednoduché porovnávací postupy,které pracují s různými intelektuálními pomůckami, jako jsou slovníky synonym, hierarchické uspořádání věcných identifikátorů apod. [2]
SMART znamenal přesun IR z původní Booleovské logiky vyhledávání na sofistikovanější přístupy, které umožnily různé uspořádání informací – hodnocení a seřazení podle relevance. V rámci vývoje SMARTu bylo testováno hodně přístupů a algoritmů.
V letech 1974 a 1975 napsal Salton několik prací, které se zabývají teorií indexování, metodami výběru slov z dokumentů a přiřazování jim číselné hodnoty. Tento model, který nazval TDV (term discrimination value), se stal významným, protože předložil princip automatického indexování, a ten měl vliv na vznik VSM (Vector Space Model).
Salton se celý svůj život věnoval vývoji vyhledávacích systémů a v jednom příspěvku z r. 1991 prohlásil: “Je snadné uchovávat velké množství informací, ale takové uchovávání nemá žádnou hodnotu, pokud nejsou vytvořeny systémy, díky kterým mohou uživatelé vyhledat požadované informace."

Aktivity

Význam pro informační vědu a knihovnictví

Gerard Salton významně přispěl do rozvoje IR. Odprostil se od booleovské logiky, která byla ve své době hojně využívaná, a zavedl do IR nástroje využívající algoritmů. Těchto principů využívají současné fulltextové vyhledávače, např. Google nebo CiteSeerX. Svým rozsáhlých dílem inspiroval mnoho autorů k další práci, především v oblasti vector space model.

Úspěchy - ocenění za publikace

Publikace

1960

  • SALTON, Gerard. A New Method for the Payment of Bills and the Transfer of Credit. Journal of the ACM. 1960, Vol. 7. Iss. 2, pp. 140–149. ISSN 0004-5411.

1962

  • SALTON, Gerard. Manipulation of trees in information retrieval. Communications of the ACM. 1962, Vol. 5, Iss. 2, pp. 103–114. ISSN 0001-0782.

1963

  • SALTON, Gerard. Associative Document Retrieval Techniques Using Bibliographic Information. Journal of the ACM. 1963, Vol. 10, Iss. 4, pp. 440–457. ISSN 0004-5411.

1965

  • SALTON, Gerard – LESK, Michael E. The SMART automatic document retrieval systems - an illustration. Communications of the ACM. 1965, Vol. 8, Iss. 6, pp. 391–398. ISSN 0001-0782.
  • PUCINKSI, Roman – KENT, Allen – TAUBE, Mortimer – WOOSTER, Harold – SALTON, Gerard. Invited comments on “Centralization of document searching facilities”. Communications of the ACM. 1965, Vol. 8, Iss. 11, pp. 709–710. ISSN 0001-0782.

1966

  • SALTON, Gerard. Control procedures for data communication - an ASA progress report. Communications of the ACM. 1966, Vol. 9, Iss. 2, pp. 100–105. ISSN 0001-0782.
  • SALTON, Gerard. Data manipulation and programming problems in automatic information retrieval. Communications of the ACM. 1966, Vol. 9, Iss. 3, pp. 204–210. ISSN 0001-0782.
  • SALTON, Gerard. Information dissemination and publication control. Communications of the ACM. 1966 Vol. 9, Iss. 4, pp. 254. ISSN 0001-0782.

1967

  • SALTON, Gerard. Covering the computer field. Communications of the ACM. 1967, Vol. 10, Iss. 1, pp. 2. ISSN 0001-0782.
  • SALTON, Gerard. The European computer gap. Communications of the ACM. 1967, Vol. 10, Iss. 4, pp. 203. ISSN 0001-0782.

1968

  • SALTON, Gerard. Editorial: On the future of mechanical information files. Communications of the ACM. 1968, Vol. 11, Iss. 1, pp. 2. ISSN 0001-0782.
  • SALTON, Gerard – LESK, Michael, E. Computer Evaluation of Indexing and Text Processing. Journal of the ACM. 1968, Vol. 15, Iss. 1, pp. 8–36. ISSN 0004-5411.
  • SALTON, Gerard. Search and retrieval experiments in real-time information retrieval. Technical Report. Ithaca: Cornell University, 1968. 30 p.
  • LESK, Michael E. – SALTON, Gerard. Relevance assessments and retrieval system. Information Storage and Retrieval. 1968, Vol. 4, Iss. 4, pp. 343–359. ISSN 0020-0271.
  • SALTON, Gerard. Editorial: professional society publications. Communications of the ACM. 1968, Vol. 11, Iss. 12, pp. 803–804. ISSN 0001-0782.

1969

  • SALTON, Gerard. A Policy for JACM. Journal of the ACM. 1969, Vol. 16, Iss. 1, pp. 1. ISSN 0004-5411.
  • SALTON, Gerard. Information science in a Ph.D. computer science program. Communications of the ACM. 1969, Vol. 12, Iss. 2, pp. 111–117. ISSN 0001-0782.
  • SALTON, Gerard. Evaluation problems in interactive information retrieval. Technical Report. Ithaca: Cornell University, 1970. 36 p.

1970

  • SALTON, Gerard. On the Role of the ACM Journal. Journal of the ACM. 1970, Vol. 17, Iss. 1, pp. 1–2. ISSN 0004-5411.

1971

  • SALTON, Gerard. Some Thoughts on Scientific Information Dissemination. Journal of the ACM. 1971, Vol. 18, Iss. 1, pp. 1–3. ISSN 0004-5411.
  • SALTON, Gerard. Experiments in Automatic Thesaurus Construction for Information Retrieval. In IFIP Congress, 1971, pp. 115–123.
  • SALTON, Gerard. The Performance of Interactive Information Retrieval. Information Processing Letters. 1971, Vol. 1, Iss. 2, pp. 35–41. ISSN 0020-0190.

1972

  • SALTON, Gerard. What Is Computer Science. Journal of the ACM. 1972, Vol. 19, Iss. 1, pp. 1–2. ISSN 0004-5411.
  • SALTON, Gerard. Information science and the annual review. Information Storage and Retrieval. 1972, Vol. 8, Iss. 2, pp. 99–101. ISSN 0020-0271.
  • SALTON, Gerard. Dynamic Document Processing. Communications of the ACM. 1972, Vol. 15, Iss. 7, pp. 658–668. ISSN 0001-0782.
  • SALTON, Gerard. Comment on “an evaluation of query expansion by the addition of clustered terms for a document retrieval system”. Information Storage and Retrieval. 1972, Vol. 8, Iss. 6, pp. 349. ISSN 0020-0271.

1973

  • SALTON, Gerard – YU, Clement T. On the Construction of Effective Vocabularies for Information Retrieval. In SIGPLAN '73 Proceedings of the 1973 meeting on Programming languages and information retrieval. New York: Association for Computing Machinery, 1973. pp. 48–60.
  • SALTON, Gerard. Experiments in Multi-Lingual Information Retrieval. Information Processing Letters. 1973, Vol. 2, Iss. 1, pp. 6–11. ISSN 0020-0190.
  • SALTON, Gerard. Automatic processing of current affairs queries. Information Storage and Retrieval. 1973, Vol. 9, Iss. 3, pp. 165–180. ISSN 0020-0271.
  • SALTON, Gerard. Recent Studies in Automatic Text Analysis and Document Retrieval. Journal of the ACM. 1973, Vol. 20, Iss. 2, pp. 258–278. ISSN 0004-5411.
  • SALTON, Gerard – YANG, C. S. – YU, Clement T. Contribution to the Theory of Indexing. Technical Report. Ithaca: Cornell University, 1973. 20 p.

1975

  • SALTON, Gerard – WONG, Andrew – YANG C. S. A Vector Space Model for Automatic Indexing. Communications of the ACM. 1975, Vol. 18, Iss. 11, pp. 613–620. ISSN 0001-0782.

1976

  • SALTON, Gerard – WONG, Andrew – YU, Clement T. Automatic indexing using term discrimination and term precision measurements. Information Processing & Management. 1976, Vol. 12, Iss. 1, pp. 43–51. ISSN 0306-4573.
  • YU, Clement T. – SALTON, Gerard. Precision Weighting - An Effective Automatic Indexing Method. Journal of the ACM. 1976, Vol. 23, Iss. 1, pp. 76–78. ISSN 0004-5411.
  • SALTON, Gerard. Information Retrieval at Cornell. SIGIR Forum”. 1976, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 4–5.
  • BERGMARK, Donna – SALTON, Gerard. Clustered File Generation and its Application to Computer Science Taxonomies. Technical Report. Ithaca: Cornell University, 1976. 21 p.

1977

  • YU, Clement T. – SALTON, Gerard. Effective Information Retrieval Using Term Accuracy. Communications of the ACM. 1977, Vol. 20, Iss. 3, pp. 135–142. ISSN 0001-0782.

1978

  • YU, Clement T. – SALTON, Gerard – SIU, Man-Keung. Effective Automatic Indexing Using Term Addition and Deletion. Journal of the ACM. 1978, Vol. 25, Iss. 2, pp. 210–225. ISSN 0004-5411.
  • SALTON, Gerard – WALDSTEIN, R. K. Term relevance weights in on-line information retrieval. Information Processing & Management. 1978, Vol. 14, Iss. 1, pp. 29–35. ISSN 0306-4573.
  • SALTON, Gerard – WONG, Andrew. 'Generation and Search of Clustered Files. ACM Transactions on Database Systems. 1978, Vol. 3, Iss. 4, pp. 321–346. ISSN 0362-5915.

1979

  • SALTON, Gerard. Progress Report on Automatic Information Retrieval. In Information Implications into the Eighties, Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Information Storage and Retrieval, Dallas, Texas, September 27 and 28, 1979. New York: Association for Computing Machinery, 1979. pp. 1.

1980

  • SALTON, Gerard – WU, Harry. A Term Weighting Model Based on Utility Theory. In SIGIR. New York : Association for Computing Machinery,1980. pp. 9–22.
  • SALTON, Gerard. Automatic term class construction using relevance – A summary of work in automatic pseudoclassification. Information Processing & Management. 1980, Vol. 16, Iss. 1, pp. 1–15. ISSN 0306-4573.


1981

  • SALTON, Gerard – BERGMARK, Donna. Parallel computations in information retrieval. In CONPAR 81: Conference on Analysing Problem Classes and Programming for Parallel Computing, Nürnberg, June 10–12, 1981 : proceedings. Berlin : Springer-Verlag, 1981. Vol. 111. pp. 328–342. ISBN 0-387-10827-0.
  • WU, Harry – SALTON, Gerard. A Comparison of Search Term Weighting: Term Relevance vs. Inverse Document Frequency. In Theoretical Issues in Information Retrieval, Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Information Storage and Retrieval, Oakland, California, USA, May 31–June 2, 1981. New York : Association for Computing Machinery,1981. pp. 30–39. ISBN 0-89791-052-4.
  • SALTON, Gerard. A Blueprint for Automatic Indexing. ACM SIGIR Forum”. 1981, Vol. 16, Iss. 2, pp. 22–38. ISSN 0163-5840.

1982

  • YU, Clement T. – LAM, Ka-Po – SALTON, Gerard. Term Weighting in Information Retrieval Using the Term Precision Model. Journal of the ACM. 1982, Vol. 29, Iss. 1, pp. 152–170. ISSN 0004-5411.
  • SALTON, Gerard. A Blueprint for Automatic Boolean Query Processing. ACM SIGIR Forum”. 1981, Vol. 17, Iss. 2, pp. 6–24. ISSN 0163-5840.

1983

  • SALTON, Gerard – SCHNEIDER, Hans-Jochen. Research and Development in Information Retrieval, Proceedings, Berlin, May 18-20, 1982. Berlin: Springer, 1983. Vol. 146. 314 p. ISBN 0-387-11978-7.
  • SALTON, Gerard – BUCKLEY, Chris – YU, Clement T. An Evaluation of Term Dependence Models in Information Retrieval. In Research and Development in Information Retrieval

Proceedings, Berlin, May 18–20, 1982. Berlin: Springer, 1983. Vol. 146. pp. 151–173. ISBN 0-387-11978-7.

  • SALTON, Gerard – FOX, Edward A. – WU, Harry. An Automatic Environment for Boolean Information Retrival. In IFIP Congress, 1983, pp. 755–762.
  • SALTON, Gerard. Some Research Problems in Automatic Information Retrieval. In Research and Development in Information Retrieval, Sixth Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland, USA, June 6–8, 1983. New York : Association for Computing Machinery,1983. pp. 252–263. ISBN 0-89791-107-5.
  • SALTON, Gerard – FOX, Edward A. – WU, Harry. Extended Boolean Information Retrieval. Communications of the ACM. 1983, Vol. 26, Iss. 11, pp. 1022–1036. ISSN 0001-0782.

1984

  • SALTON, Gerard – MCGILL, Michael. Introduction to Modern Information Retrieval. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1984. 448 p. ISBN 0-07-054484-0.
  • SALTON, Gerard. The Use of Extended Boolean Logic in Information Retrieval. In SIGMOD'84, Proceedings of Annual Meeting, Boston, Massachusetts, June 18–21, 1984. New York: Association for Computing Machinery Press,1984. pp. 277–285.
  • SALTON, Gerard – VOORHEES, Ellen M. – FOX, Edward A. A comparison of two methods for boolean query relevancy feedback. Information Processing & Management. 1984, Vol. 20, Iss. 5–6, pp. 637–651. ISSN 0306-4573.

1985

  • SALTON, Gerard. On The Representation Of Query Term Relations By Soft Boolean Operators. EACL '85 Proceedings of the second conference on European chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics. Stroudsburg: Association for Computational Linguistics, 1985. pp. 116–122.
  • SALTON, Gerard. A note on information retrieval models and theories. In Recherche d'informations assistée par ordinateur.Colloque 18/3/1985. France: IMAG, 1985. pp. 1–27.
  • SALTON, Gerard – VOORHEES, Ellen M. Automatic Assignment of Soft Boolean Operators. In SIGIR '85 Proceedings of the 8th annual international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in information retrieval. New York: Association for Computing Machinery,1985. pp. 54–69. ISBN 0-89791-159-8.
  • SALTON, Gerard. Thoughts Regarding the RIAO-85 Conference in Grenoble. ACM SIGIR Forum”. 1985, Vol. 18, Iss. 2–4, pp. 5–9. ISSN 0163-5840.
  • SALTON, Gerard. Some Characteristics of Future Information Systems. ACM SIGIR Forum”. 1985, Vol. 18, Iss. 2–4, pp. 28–39. ISSN 0163-5840.

1986

  • SALTON, Gerard. On the Use of Term Associations in Automatic Information Retrieval. In COLING '86 Proceedings of the 11th coference on Computational linguistics. Stroudsburg: Association for Computational Linguistics, 1986. pp. 380–386.
  • SALTON, Gerard. Recent Trends in Automatic Information Retrieval. In SIGIR'86, Proceedings of the 9th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, Pisa, Italy, September 8–10, 1986. New York: Association for Computing Machinery,1986. pp. 1–10.
  • SALTON, Gerard. Another Look at Automatic Text-Retrieval Systems. Communications of the ACM. 1986, Vol. 29, Iss. 7, pp. 648–656. ISSN 0001-0782.
  • SALTON, Gerard – ZHANG, Y. Enhancement of text representations using related document titles. Information Processing & Management. 1986, Vol. 22, Iss. 5, pp. 385–394. ISSN 0306-4573.

1987

  • OZKARAHAN, Esen A. – STANFILL, Craig – SALTON, Gerard. Parallel Architecture in IR. In Proceedings of the Tenth Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, June 3–5, 1987. New York: Association for Computing Machinery,1987. pp. 282.
  • SALTON, Gerard. Expert Systems and Information Retrieval. ACM SIGIR Forum. 1987, Vol. 21, Iss. 3–4, pp. 3–9. ISSN 0163-5840.

1988

  • SALTON, Gerard. Syntactic Approaches to Automatic Book Indexing. In ACL '88 Proceedings of the 26th annual meeting on Association for Computational Linguistics. Stroudsburg: Association for Computational Linguistics, 1988. pp. 204–210.
  • SALTON, Gerard – BUCKLEY, Chris. On the Use of Spreading Activation Methods in Automatic Information Retrieval. In SIGIR'88, Proceedings of the 11th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, Grenoble, France, June 13–15, 1988. New York: Association for Computing Machinery,1988. pp. 147–160.
  • SALTON, Gerard – BUCKLEY, Chris. Parallel Text Search Methods. Communications of the ACM. 1988, Vol. 31, Iss. 2, pp. 202–215. ISSN 0001-0782.
  • SALTON, Gerard. A Simple Blueprint for Automatic Boolean Query Processing. Information Processing & Management. 1988, Vol. 24, Iss. 3, pp. 269–280. ISSN 0306-4573.
  • SALTON, Gerard – BUCKLEY, Chris. Term-Weighting Approaches in Automatic Text Retrieval. Information Processing & Management. 1988, Vol. 24, Iss. 5, pp. 513–523. ISSN 0306-4573.

1989

  • SALTON, Gerard. Automatic Text Processing: The Transformation, Analysis, and Retrieval of Information by Computer. Boston: Addison-Wesley Longman Publishing Co., 1989. 530 p. ISBN 0-201-12227-8.
  • SALTON, Gerard – SMITH, Maria. On the Application of Syntactic Methodologies in Automatic Text Analysis. In SIGIR'89, 12th International Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, June 25–28, 1989. New York: Association for Computing Machinery,1989. pp. 137–150. ISBN 0-89791-321-3.
  • SALTON, Gerard. ASIS Panel on New Developments and Future Prospects for Electronic Databases. In SIGIR'89, 12th International Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, June 25–28, 1989. New York: Association for Computing Machinery,1989. pp. 250. ISBN 0-89791-321-3.

1990

  • SALTON, Gerard. Full Text Information Processing Using the Smart System. Data Engineering. 1990, Vol. 13, Iss. 1, pp. 2–9.
  • SALTON, Gerard – BUCKLEY, Chris – SMITH, Maria. On the application of syntactic methodologies in automatic text analysis. Information Processing & Management. 1990, Vol. 26, Iss. 1, pp. 73–92. ISSN 0306-4573.
  • SALTON, Gerard – BUCKLEY, Chris. Improving retrieval performance by relevance feedback. Journal of the American Society for Information Science. 1990, Vol. 41, Iss. 4, pp. 288–297. ISSN 0002-8231.

1991

  • BOOKSTEIN, Abraham – CHIARAMELLA, Yves – SALTON, Gerard – RAGHAVAN Vijay V. Proceedings of the 14th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval. Chicago, Illinois, USA, October 13-16, 1991. New York: Association for Computing Machinery,1991. 359 p. ISBN 0-89791-448-1.
  • WONG, S. K. Michael – YAO, Yiyu – SALTON, Gerard – BUCKLEY, Chris. Evaluation of an adaptive linear model. Journal of the American Society for Information Science. 1990, Vol. 42, Iss. 10. pp. 723–730. ISSN 0002-8231.

1992

  • BUCKLEY, Chris – SALTON, Gerard – ALLAN, James. Automatic Retrieval With Locality Information Using SMART. In First Text Retrieval Conference (Trec-1): Proceedings. Held in Gaithersburg, MD, Nov. 4–6, 1992. pp. 59–72.
  • SALTON, Gerard – BUCKLEY, Chris – ALLAN, James. Automatic Structuring of Text Files. Electronic Publishing. 1992, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 1–17.
  • SALTON, Gerard. The State of Retrieval System Evaluation. Information Processing & Management. 1992, Vol. 28, Iss. 4, pp. 441–449. ISSN 0306-4573.

1993

  • SALTON, Gerard– ALLAN, James. Selective Text Utilization and Text Traversal. In Hypertext'93 Proceedings, November 14–18, 1993, Seattle, Washington, USA. New York: Association for Computing Machinery,1993. pp 131–144. ISBN 0-89791-624-7.
  • SALTON, Gerard– ALLAN, James – BUCKLEY, Chris. Approaches to Passage Retrieval in Full Text Information Systems. In Proceedings of the 16th Annual International ACM-SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval. Pittsburgh, PA, USA, June 27 – July 1, 1993. New York: Association for Computing Machinery,1993. pp 49–58. ISBN 0-89791-605-0.
  • BUCKLEY, Chris – SALTON, Gerard– ALLAN, James. Automatic Routing and Ad-hoc Retrieval Using SMART: TREC 2. In Proceedings of the Second Text REtrieval Conference (TREC-2). 1993, pp. 45–56.

1994

  • SALTON, Gerard – ALLAN, James – BUCKLEY, Chris. Automatic Structuring and Retrival of Large Text Files. Communications of the ACM. 1994, Vol. 37, Iss. 2, pp. 97–108. ISSN 0001-0782.

1995

  • BUCKLEY, Chris – ALLAN, James – SALTON, Gerard. Automatic Routing and Retrieval Using Smart: TREC-2. Information Processing & Management. 1995, Vol. 31, Iss. 3, pp. 315–326. ISSN 0306-4573.
  • SALTON, Gerard – ALLAN, James. Selective text utilization and text traversal. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies. 1995, Vol. 43, Iss. 3, pp. 483–497. ISSN 1071-5819.

1996

  • SALTON, Gerard – ALLAN, James – SINGHAL, Amit. Automatic Text Decomposition and Structuring. Information Processing & Management. 1996, Vol. 32, Iss. 2, pp. 127–138. ISSN 0306-4573.
  • SINGHAL, Amit – SALTON, Gerard – MITRA, Mandar – BUCKLEY, Chris. Document Length Normalization. Information Processing & Management. 1996, Vol. 32, Iss. 5, pp. 619–633. ISSN 0306-4573.

1997

  • SALTON, Gerard – SINGHAL, Amit – MITRA, Mandar – BUCKLEY, Chris. Automatic Text Structuring and Summarization. Information Processing & Management. 1997, Vol. 33, Iss. 2, pp. 193–207. ISSN 0306-4573.
  • SALTON, Gerard. A Blueprint for Automatic Indexing. ACM SIGIR Forum. 1997, Vol. 31, Iss. 1, pp. 23–36. ISSN 0163-5840.
  • SALTON, Gerard. Expert Systems and Information Retrieval. ACM SIGIR Forum. 1997, Vol. 31, Iss. 1, pp. 39–42. ISSN 0163-5840.


Poznámky

  1. In Memoriam. In Cornell University - Department of Computer Science [online]. Cornell University - Department of Computer Science, poslední aktualizace 20. 8. 1999 [cit. 15. 5. 2012]. Dostupné z WWW: <https://www.cs.cornell.edu/Info/Department/Annual96/Beginning/salton.html>.
  2. SALTON, Gerard. Prieskumový informačný systém. 1. vyd. Bratislava: ALFA, 1981. s. 15.


Zdroje

  • SALTON, Gerard. Prieskumový informačný systém. 1. vyd. Bratislava: ALFA, 1981. 592 s.


Elektronické zdroje: